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lock icon Unpatched Flash Player Flaw, More POCs Found in Hacking Team Leak

Jul 7, 2015 at 10:58 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Earlier this week the Italian company Hacking Team was hacked, with more than 400GB of confidential company data made available to the public. The company was known for selling what it described as tools used to lawfully intercept communications that could be used by governments and law enforcement agencies. The company has stated they do […]

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lock icon Defending Critical Systems: Does It Have To Be Smart?

Jul 3, 2015 at 11:54 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Everywhere I go it seems to be that “critical” systems are being attacked. Earlier this year people were talking about whether planes could be hacked. We’ve talked about whether smart grids can be hacked, too. Just a week or so ago, LOT Polish Airlines was almost completely grounded by a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack. In […]

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lock icon Recovery possibilities in depth: File level Recovery

Jul 2, 2015 at 11:00 UTC | Morris Tech Partners

It probably has been said ten million times before but its worth saying again Backup always leads to recovery and recovery should be easy. In previous postsOpens a new window we looked at the integration of Veeam Backup & Replication with Veeam Endpoint Backup FREEOpens a new window and already gave you some recovery options that you get with the integration. Today we are going to review the recovery options available for any end user.

Before we dive in to this, keep in mind that recovery options highly rely on the backup mode you used. For example, it not possible to recover the entire computer from your personal files backup.

Individual files

This option you can choose no matter what backup mode you have selectedOpens a new window. Even if you use entire PC backup, you dont need to restore everything to get a simple file back. For those of you who worked already with Veeam Backup & Replication, this restore will look very familiar.

There are three methods to start restoring files. First one is launching the wizard from the windows start screen. You need to find the File Level Restore application and open it. The second method is to right-click the notification icon, and choose Restore Individual files. These two methods will pop up a wizard on a restore point selection step

The wizard approach is very handy when you need to recover files from other PCs backups: you can actually go one step back (by pressing the previous button) and open the Backup Location wizards step where you can manually specify the backup file location.

Opens a new window

The third method is to open Veeam Endpoint Backup Control Panel and click the needed bar on the chart Once done, you will see the details of the specific backup associated with this bar and whats more important you can start a restore directly from this screen. By the way as you can see on the screenshot below my restore point does not contain any volumes thus volume level recovery is not possible.

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Once you passed all the wizards steps and clicked Open or in case you launched File Level Recovery directly from Control Panel the backup file is mounted to the operating system under C:VeeamFLR so you can browse thru the backup browser or thru the regular Windows browser.

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For the restore via backup browser, you also have a few options:

Overwrite: If you use this option we will restore the file to the original location and if that file still exists at that location, we will overwrite it.Keep: When you select this option, the file will also be restored to the same location, but we will add Restored in front of the filename. That means you can retrieve the file easily AND we wont overwrite the original one if it is still present.Copy To: Copy to will give you the possibility to restore it to another location and it will give you the ability to preserve the permissions and ownership of the file

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Last but not least, restoring multiple files or folders at once is perfectly possible by using the known multi-select options.


In this post we looked at the item-level restore capabilities of Veeam Endpoint Backup FREE. We still need to look at volume-level recoveries and bare metal recoveries but that will be for later posts.

Item-level recoveries is very powerful and gives you multiple restore capabilities from overwriting existing files / folders with previous versions to copy the files / folders to different locations and more.

The handy backup wizard allows you to browse through your entire files set and no matter what backup mode you have chosen, you always will be able to do item-level recoveries

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lock icon TorrentLocker Surges in the UK, More Social Engineering Lures Seen

Jul 2, 2015 at 06:32 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Analysis and data by Paul Pajares (Fraud Analyst) and Jon Oliver (Senior Architect) We’ve noticed a recent increase in TorrentLocker-related emails being sent to users in several countries, particularly the United Kingdom and Turkey. From the latter half of May until June 10, there wasa relative lull in TorrentLocker-related emails. However, over a period of […]

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lock icon Ubiquitous Technology for K-12 Requires Ubiquitous Wi-Fi

Jul 1, 2015 at 23:49 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Many of the sessions at ISTE 2015, the premier forum for learning, exchanging ideas and surveying the field of education...

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lock icon Video Game Day Best Practices for Attacking Cyber Criminals Trying to Ruin ...

Jul 1, 2015 at 13:57 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Video Games Day is approaching! On July 8, enthusiasts will have the perfect opportunity to indulge in their favorite games and celebrate the evolution of their favorite pastime. In recent years, games have evolved from text-based games on PCs to consoles and now include mobile devices. These sophisticated platforms have revolutionized the way we play...
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lock icon Veeam Availability Suite v9, how many Storage Enhancements!

Jun 30, 2015 at 14:15 UTC | Morris Tech Partners

The upcoming Veeam Availability Suite v9Opens a new window has tons of enhancements and new features, but improvements around primary and backup storage will surely be one of the biggest parts of our next release.

We already announced a new additionOpens a new window in our list of supported storage arrays for our storage snapshots integration (EMC VNX/VNXe), but this isnt the only storage newson the contrary, there are plenty of them, and Ill cover some of them in this post.

The first new feature we are announcing today is something I waited a long time for personally, and I suspected it was about to come when we had our first NFS client in v8 (as a part of our NetApp integration). For a long time, NFS users have felt a bit like second-class citizens in the virtualization world, and the lack of direct access to an NFS storage in VDDK to read data during backup operations was surely one reason to envy block storage users. All of the NFS-specific issues VMware backup has had in the past years didnt help, either. Now, in v9, something similar to Direct SAN processing mode will finally be available for NFS as well. Internally, we call this feature Direct NFS. With it, any new Veeam proxy will run our new and improved NFS client to directly access any NFS share exposed to VMware vSphere, supporting both the traditional NFS v3 and the new NFS 4.1 available in vSphere 6. With the complete visibility of single files allowed by the NFS share, NFS users will be able to backup and replicate VMs directly from the NAS array and avoid the need to cross the hypervisor layer for their activities. This will result in faster backups and an even smaller load on production workloads.

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lock icon Push It To The Limit! Understand Wi-Fis Breaking Point to Design Better WLAN...

Jun 30, 2015 at 12:35 UTC | Morris Tech Partners

This is the fourth and final blog post in the WLAN capacity planning series. Be sure to read the firstOpens a new window, secondOpens a new window, and thirdOpens a new window posts.

We all want high performing WLANs. In order to do that we must push Wi-Fi to its limits!

(Cue adapted Scarface ThemeOpens a new window, verse 1)

Push it to the limit!

Walk along the perimeter edge

But dont look up, just keep your head

And youll be finished

Survey to the limit!

Past the point of no bandwidth

Youve reached the edge but still you gotta learn

How to build it

Hit the floor and double your pace

Laptop wide open like an engineer outta hell

And you crush the speed test

Going for the back of every room

Nothing gonna stop you

Theres no wall that strong

So close now, battery near the brink

So, push it!

We walk a fine line when designing wireless networks, attempting to push as many users and bandwidth through our APs as possible, ensuring adequate capacity is available to meet demand, while not overbuilding the network. But what are the limits and how do we know weve hit them? Or more importantly, how do we plan and design Wi-Fi networks to make sure we dont hit these limits?

The Right Metrics

Capacity can be defined as the amount of available time for stations to transmit and receive data. Or to put it another way, available capacity is the inverse of network utilization. The question then becomes, how do me measure network utilization?

In order to design, measure and assess the performance of a WLAN, we need to understand the key metrics that define WLAN health. In wired and wireless networks alike the key metrics are bandwidth (more precisely throughput, which Ill use from here on out) and latency. If youll recall from my earlier post, throughput is really a function of serialization delay, while latency is a function of both geographic delay and contention delay.

For the purposes of discussing latency in the remainder of this article, Ill limit my working definition to contention delay at the access layer since most Wi-Fi travels over distances of only a few tens of meters with RF signals travelling near the speed of light, which renders geographic delay negligible.

However there is a key difference between wired and wireless networks that must be considered. In wired networks both throughput and latency correspond directly to link utilization; a wired link operates at full-duplex and with a single fixed speed, which allows for predictability and a direct correlation between throughput and latency with link utilization. Therefore, on wired networks we use throughput and latency metrics to directly assess the health of a network.

In wireless networks, the underlying link is half-duplex and operates with a variable link data rate depending on the combination of AP capabilities, client capabilities, and environmental factors such as RSSI, SNR, and multipath. Therefore, there is no direct correlation between throughput and link utilization. For example, take three different clients that all need to consume the same 10 Mbps throughput: a high-end laptop may result in 4% airtime utilization, a tablet 10% airtime utilization, and a smartphone 25% airtime utilization (these are example figures only and should not be used for planning purposes). Clearly throughput is not a good measure of WLAN utilization or health. The unique mix of clients and applications on a network determine the airtime utilization on the network and the resulting throughput performance and access latency of the WLAN. WLAN professionals must focus on the underlying airtime utilization in order to assess network utilization, available capacity and wireless network health.

Airtime utilization is the key metric to measure and assess WLAN health

Airtime utilization (or channel utilization) is influenced by two main factors: external RF interference (non-Wi-Fi energy) and medium contention (Wi-Fi transmissions). External RF interference is fairly straightforward; energy above the CCA ED threshold (Clear Channel Assessment, Energy Detection) causes Wi-Fi stations to sense the medium as busy and defer transmission, thus consuming available airtime from the Wi-Fi stations perspective. Additionally, energy below the CCA ED threshold can raise the noise floor and reduce the SNR for Wi-Fi stations, resulting in the use of lower data rates and possibly higher retransmission rates. Medium contention requires a bit more definition, as the topic is more nuanced and requires greater focus to successfully plan and design a WLAN.

We can classify sources of 802.11 medium contention into two major categories. If there are two limits we need to be aware about in Wi-Fi, its these two!

  1. Airtime Demand the airtime demanded by stations within an individual AP radio cell.
  2. Co-Channel Interference (CCI) the airtime utilization that results from Wi-Fi contention across all stations (APs and clients) on the same frequency or channel across multiple AP radio cells.

The two result in fundamentally the same effect but are approached differently within the WLAN design process. Airtime demand is addressed through capacity planning while CCI is addressed through coverage planning.

Airtime Demand

The first major source of medium contention is the airtime demand within a single AP radio cell. Simply put, this is the amount of airtime required by all clients of varying capabilities running a variety of applications, which are connected to a single AP radio.

Many Wi-Fi professionals and novices alike fall into the trap of guessing the number of clients a single AP should be designed to support, or even worse deciding how many APs are required based on square feet / meters using a rule-of-thumb. These outdated methods for WLAN design have resulted in capacity forecasts that do not accurately reflect the capacity demand and intended use-case(s) for the WLAN. Often WLANs are deployed with too few access points by following an outdated coverage-oriented design methodology, or with too many access points because capacity planning has not been performed, the capacity planning methodology used is inaccurate, or the false notion that simply deploying more APs will result in more capacity.

WLAN capacity is heavily dictated by the interaction between the infrastructure and client devices, with the capabilities of each directly shaping the performance of a network reliant on shared airtime. No two WLANs are alike due to the unique mix of access points and the myriad of different client device types. Therefore, the measure of WLAN capacity is determining the airtime demand of all stations on the WLAN based on their quantities, capabilities, and intended use (application requirements, user and/or device behavior). From these measurements, coupled with other environmental characteristics, we can derive a capacity forecast, which describes the number of Wi-Fi radios operating on non-overlapping channels (to minimize CCI) in the same physical area that are required to meet the throughput requirements of all client devices.

The airtime demand placed on the WLAN by each individual client device is determined by dividing the device throughput capability by the required application throughput. Care must be taken to use realistic device throughput capability figures that devices will actually experience throughout the WLAN; avoid using the peak throughput under a best-case scenario. The airtime demand is then summed for all concurrent client devices on the WLAN and distributed between frequency bands to determine the correct quantity of APs and radios to deploy. This provides a forecast of the capacity required on the WLAN.

The key to the capacity forecast is reducing medium contention between client devices by segmenting them into small enough groups operating on non-overlapping channels so that each client can achieve the required application throughput level for an optimal user experience. As depicted in the graphic below, the goal is to find the correct number of AP radios that will segment users into different collision domains rather than overloading AP radios. The breakout or ratio of 5 GHz to 2.4 GHz radios is of critical importance as well, since the 5 GHz bands offer significantly more channels and capacity.

Capacity planning should result in the optimal number of APs to serve all users without overloading APs.

Co-Channel Interference (CCI)

The second major source of contention is co-channel interference (CCI). Since radio communications are unbounded, receivers must attempt to distinguish the desired incoming signal from all other energy. When multiple transmissions exist at the same time on the same frequency it complicates the ability for receiving stations to accurately determine the correct signal to sync its circuitry to and receive. Therefore, to prevent frame loss in such situations, most wireless based systems operate in either a half-duplex (example: Wi-Fi) or simplex (example: FDD) mode. For Wi-Fi, this means that stations must defer transmission if they detect an existing Wi-Fi transmission in progress on the frequency.

Co-channel Interference (CCI) results from the need to re-use the same radio frequencies (channels) within a multi-AP WLAN deployment due to the limited spectrum resources that we have to work with. It also results from neighboring WLANs that are within range of one another and using overlapping frequencies due to lack of coordination or limited spectrum resources. When CCI is present, multiple AP radios have overlapping coverage areas and cause Wi-Fi stations to defer transmissions across AP boundaries. In this manner, a transmission in one AP cell causes deferral in an adjacent AP cell. The result is that the two AP cells share available airtime and capacity to a large degree.

It is critical to understand how to design WLANs to minimize CCI. To do this effectively, we must know what the RSSI threshold is where a Wi-Fi station can properly recognize, sync, and decode a frame preamble and PLCP header (physical layer header). Unfortunately this varies between chipsets and device design. Generically, frame PLCP headers can be decoded at the Receive (Rx) Sensitivity level of the Wi-Fi device at the data rate used to encode the preamble. PLCP headers are hard-coded at low data rates based on the PHY specifications as follows:

  • 802.11b with Long Preambles = 1 Mbps
  • 802.11b with Short Preambles = 2 Mbps
  • 802.11a/g/n/ac (OFDM) = 6 Mbps

The Rx Sensitivity level for many chipsets at these data rates can be very low, in the -90 to -99 dBm range (sometimes even lower for access points). This can result in CCI being detected from very distant transmissions, causing deferral and loss of airtime and capacity. Some Wi-Fi devices, mainly APs, also have artificial CCA carrier sense thresholds that can be configured to ignore transmissions below a defined signal level that is higher than the Rx Sensitivity of the device, reducing the negative effects of CCI from distant transmitters.

Savvy readers may be asking, why dont they just design the device with a lower Rx Sensitivity in the first place? The answer is because better Rx Sensitivity improves the reception of frames at all data rates, including higher data rates, improving rate over range across the board. Improved Rx Sensitivity is generally a good thing and improves performance.

The IEEE 802.11-2012 standard also defines a signal threshold for CCA carrier sense and deferral, which is -82 dBm for OFDM PHYs (802.11a/g/n/ac). This level is also a common artificial threshold in APs. Therefore, WLAN professionals commonly design WLANs to minimize CCI using a cell boundary of -82 dBm. It is important to understand just how far an RF signal travels beyond the desired association coverage area (e.g. -66 dBm). The graphic below helps visualize this distance, which is the result of the inverse square law, which states that every doubling of distance in free space results in 1/4th received signal strength, or -6 dB. The practical effect is that CCI can very well cause CCA deferral, shared airtime and shared capacity up to 8x the distance from the AP as the desired client association range!

Graphic courtesy of the Aruba Networks VHD VRD Theory GuideOpens a new window

The lack of CCI mitigation is one of the major sources of reduced capacity on modern Wi-Fi networks. Often times network architects recognize the need for greater capacity but fail to take into account the negative effects of co-channel interference (CCI) that actually reduces capacity. It is critical to plan for the proper AP quantity, AP placement, antennas, AP channel width and use of DFS channels (affecting the number of channels available for frequency reuse), association coverage threshold, AP overlap for roaming, frequency reuse, and CCI boundaries when designing a WLAN. By installing too many APs or by inadequately implementing a frequency re-use plan, CCI will increase and actual capacity on the WLAN will decrease due to increased overhead from management and control traffic. Additionally, capacity decreases even further because more clients are drawn to connect to APs on the frequency due to higher average RSSI / SNR across a larger coverage area, which brings more stations competing for the shared airtime of the channel. As part of the design process, disabling radios is a tactic that should be considered when appropriate to minimize CCI, especially in the 2.4 GHz band and the de-facto standard of dual-radio APs with fixed frequency bands.

The Breaking Point

Since airtime utilization is the key metric that determines WLAN health, we need to know the breaking point where the amount of airtime utilization results in degraded application performance and user experience. The breaking point varies but is based on application latency requirements and the underlying mechanics of WMM contention handling for different QoS queues. Latency is heavily dependent upon the number of collisions and retransmissions it takes to successfully deliver a frame over the air.

When designing a WLAN, identify which set of applications are in-use on the network and thus which airtime utilization breaking point is applicable:

  • Data applications are more tolerant of frame retransmissions since they do not require real-time interaction. The WMM best effort queue is where most data applications are handled, which has a large initial contention window size, accommodating more concurrent users and higher airtime utilization before retransmissions and degraded performance begin to appear.

    80% airtime utilization is a good threshold to use for WLANs that only support data applications.
  • Real-time applications like voice and non-buffered or interactive video have more stringent latency requirements. The WMM voice and video queues handle these traffic types and have much smaller initial contention window sizes than the best effort queue, resulting in a lower airtime utilization threshold before user transmissions begin colliding resulting in retransmissions, latency spikes, and degraded application performance.

    35% airtime utilization is a good threshold to use when the WLAN only supports voice and video applications, which is rare. More commonly, WLANs with voice support a mix of voice and data applications, described next.
  • Mixed networks support both voice and data applications. Therefore, the airtime utilization threshold to use is a blend of the best effort, voice, and video queues.

    50% airtime utilization is a good threshold to use for mixed-use WLANs.

Integration Into WLAN Design

WLAN design should be approached with an emphasis on developing a balanced design, providing appropriate levels of coverage and capacity. A balanced design attempts to provide adequate capacity to meet growing demand while not over-building the WLAN and incurring excessive cost. This approach requires careful analysis of capacity requirements in order to determine the appropriate number of APs to meet current and future demand. Frequency re-use is of critical importance during RF planning in order to ensure that AP density required can be implemented successfully without causing significant co-channel interference (CCI). A balanced design is appropriate for most modern WLANs, which face increasing device density and business reliance on the WLAN, but must be mindful of budgetary constraints and return on investment.

Proper capacity planning must be coupled with RF coverage planning to determine the correct amount of APs for a WLAN as well as how it should be implemented within a given physical space using correct AP placement, antenna selection, coverage patterns, and frequency re-use. Planning for RF coverage and WLAN capacity require different methods of forecasting and measurement, while at the same time being tied together in a coherent fashion to achieve a successful outcome. Both coverage and capacity requirements should be forecasted as part of the WLAN design process and merged together to provide a final WLAN design. Network architects should not rely solely on either coverage planning or capacity planning to design WLANs, but use both processes together.

In some environments, capacity requirements will dictate more access points (on non-overlapping channels) than would be required based purely on RF coverage requirements. In other environments, the opposite may be true. And in high-density environments, the per-user performance may be restricted due to RF spectrum and CCI limitations. It is recommended that network architects perform WLAN capacity and coverage planning in parallel and in an iterative process, balancing the requirements of both before deciding on a final design.

Additional Resources

I recently conducted a webinar with Aruba Networks titled Great Wi-Fi Starts with Proper DesignOpens a new window where I covered the 7 Cs of WLAN design, describing the key steps for success from start to finish.

I presented at WLPC 2015 on WLAN Capacity Planning: From Concept to PracticeOpens a new window where I covered the iterative design process between capacity planning and coverage planning in depth. I also walk through a real-world example to bring the methodology to life in a tangible way.

I have also released a free tool, the Revolution Wi-Fi Capacity Planner Opens a new window, which is a predictive tool to aid in the capacity planning phase of WLAN design. The tool is also accompanied by a user guide, which details the theory and methodology used. Both are bundled together when downloaded.

Be sure to check out other videosOpens a new window I have posted regarding WLAN capacity planning.

Closing Thought

Wi-Fi is a complex technology and the only way to get better is to put in the effort through learning and experience. So get out there and push yourself to the limit!

(Cue adapted Scarface ThemeOpens a new window, verse 2)

Welcome to the limit

(The limit)

Take it maybe one step more

The bandwidth hungry clients still comin so

You better learn it

Push it to the limit

(The limit)

With no one left but you in your way

You might get careless, but your WLANs never safe

While you still maintain it

Welcome to the limit

(The limit)

Standing on the perimeter edge

Don't look down just keep your head

And you'll be finished


Andrew von Nagy

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lock icon Lordfenix: 20-year-old Brazilian Makes Profit Off Banking Malware

Jun 30, 2015 at 09:53 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
A 20-year-old college student whose underground username is Lordfenix has become one of Brazils top banking malware creators. Lordfenix developed his underground reputation by creating more than a hundred online banking Trojans, each valued at over US$300. Lordfenix is the latest in a string of young and notorious solo cybercriminals were seeing today. Who is […]

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lock icon Cloud App Security: the Answer to Advanced Office 365 Threats

Jun 29, 2015 at 15:07 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Cloud computing has fundamentally changed the way we do business, for the better. The software-as-a-service industry alone has matured at an astonishing rate over the past few years to the point where its no longer only those risk-taking early adopters signing up businesses of all shapes and sizes are jumping on board. But while...
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lock icon Compare and Contrast: The Connected World in Europe, Japan and the U.S.

Jun 29, 2015 at 13:00 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Todays continuously connected society is changing many aspects of daily life, yet the majority of respondents in our survey Privacy and Security in a Connected Life have not become more concerned overall about the security of their personal data. However, certain aspects of the increased connectivity have made consumers more hesitant across the board. Data...
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lock icon MERS News Used in Targeted Attack against Japanese Media Company

Jun 29, 2015 at 09:54 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Attackers used news of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak as hook in a spear-phishing email sent to an employee of a popular Japanese mass media company. Using a free account from Yahoo! Mail to easily pass through anti-spam filters, the attackers copied publicly available information from the Internet to lure the recipient to […]

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lock icon Food for Thought: Restaurant Technology Becoming More Advanced

Jun 29, 2015 at 09:51 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Restaurant technology is now becoming increasingly advanced, not only to address security issues, but to better meet customer needs as well.
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lock icon The State of the ESILE/Lotus Blossom Campaign

Jun 26, 2015 at 19:01 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
The Esile targeted attack campaign targeting various countries in the Southeast Asian region has been discussed in the media recently. Thiscampaign – which wasreferred to by other researchers asLotus Blossom–is believed to be the work of a nation-state actor due to the nature of the stolen information, which is more valuable to countries than either […]

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lock icon This Week in Security News

Jun 26, 2015 at 13:00 UTC | Morris Tech Partners
Welcome to our weekly roundup, where we share what you need to know about the cybersecurity news and events that happened over the past few days. Below youll find a quick recap of topics followed by links to news articles and/or our blog posts providing additional insight. Be sure to check back each Friday for...
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